Drought and Wildife Resources (General)
Description:

Hello all,

As we enter the 2022 growing season, keep in mind the MSU Extension Wildfire and Drought Taskforce has made substantial changes to our web page with new information and updates to existing information.  Much of Montana's dryland production areas are still experienceing moderate to extreme drought.  Consult our web page for timely and relevant information and as always, reach out to us with suggestions. 

MSU Wildfire and Drought web page: http://aboutus.msuextension.org/wildfiredrought/

 


Alert Period: 05/16/2022 - 09/30/2022
Submitted By: Hayes Goosey
Scouting for Grasshoppers – May 12, 2022 (Cropland Insects)
Description:

Scouting for Grasshoppers – May 12, 2022

After a few years of high grasshopper populations many are eager to start spraying this spring. Vigilant scouting is important during grasshopper outbreaks - pesticides applied too early or too late are likely to be ineffective. Control measures should not be applied until the grasshoppers have hatched and their numbers can be estimated.

Egg hatch can begin during May and can continue through the summer, but timing depends on the species of grasshopper and the weather. David Branson (USDA – ARS Sidney) suggests the grasshopper hatch this year could be delayed by a week or two due to the cool spring weather (unless the upcoming weather becomes warmer than average).  

For rangeland grasshopper control, Gary Adams (USDA – APHIS Billings) indicates that optimal timing coincides with the 2nd and 3rd instar stages. Typically, rangeland treatment in Montana occurs during the 2nd to 3rd week of June but could be delayed this year. Specific timing depends on weather and is based on scouting and staging the grasshopper population.

For grasshopper control in crops, I do not recommend spraying before most of the eggs have hatched and the pest numbers can be counted. Sprays applied before egg hatch will not have sufficient residual activity. Juvenile and adult grasshoppers can migrate into crops from surrounding grassland, regular scouting is advised through the summer.

Treatment thresholds are based on the number of grasshoppers per square yard. The square foot method of surveying grasshoppers: The number of grasshoppers in a one square foot area is estimated visually and randomly repeated 18 times while walking a transect. The total number of grasshoppers is tallied and divided by two to give the number per square yard. Alternatively, four 180-degree sweeps with a 15-inch diameter sweep net is considered equivalent to the number of adult (or nymph) grasshoppers per square yard (NDSU Extension).

For more information on scouting methods, thresholds and insecticides in rangeland and crops, refer to the High Plains IPM Guide:

Alfalfa: https://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Grasshoppers_and_Crickets

Rangeland: https://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Range_Pasture_Grasshoppers

Small Grains: https://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Grasshoppers_SG

Submitted by: Kevin Wanner (MSU Extension)


Alert Period: 05/12/2022 - 06/15/2022
Submitted By: Kevin Wanner
Scouting for Grasshoppers – May 12, 2022 (Cropland Insects)
Description:

Scouting for Grasshoppers – May 12, 2022

After a few years of high grasshopper populations many are eager to start spraying this spring. Vigilant scouting is important during grasshopper outbreaks - pesticides applied too early or too late are likely to be ineffective. Control measures should not be applied until the grasshoppers have hatched and their numbers can be estimated.

Egg hatch can begin during May and can continue through the summer, but timing depends on the species of grasshopper and the weather. David Branson (USDA – ARS Sidney) suggests the grasshopper hatch this year could be delayed by a week or two due to the cool spring weather (unless the upcoming weather becomes warmer than average).  

For rangeland grasshopper control, Gary Adams (USDA – APHIS Billings) indicates that optimal timing coincides with the 2nd and 3rd instar stages. Typically, rangeland treatment in Montana occurs during the 2nd to 3rd week of June but could be delayed this year. Specific timing depends on weather and is based on scouting and staging the grasshopper population.

For grasshopper control in crops, I do not recommend spraying before most of the eggs have hatched and the pest numbers can be counted. Sprays applied before egg hatch will not have sufficient residual activity. Juvenile and adult grasshoppers can migrate into crops from surrounding grassland, regular scouting is advised through the summer.

Treatment thresholds are based on the number of grasshoppers per square yard. The square foot method of surveying grasshoppers: The number of grasshoppers in a one square foot area is estimated visually and randomly repeated 18 times while walking a transect. The total number of grasshoppers is tallied and divided by two to give the number per square yard. Alternatively, four 180-degree sweeps with a 15-inch diameter sweep net is considered equivalent to the number of adult (or nymph) grasshoppers per square yard (NDSU Extension).

For more information on scouting methods, thresholds and insecticides in rangeland and crops, refer to the High Plains IPM Guide:

Alfalfa: https://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Grasshoppers_and_Crickets

Rangeland: https://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Range_Pasture_Grasshoppers

Small Grains: https://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Grasshoppers_SG

Submitted by: Kevin Wanner (MSU Extension)


Alert Period: 05/12/2022 - 06/15/2022
Submitted By: Kevin Wanner
Tips for Scouting Cutworms, May 9 2022 (Cropland Insects)
Description:

Two common species of cutworm damage crops in Montana, the army cutworm and the pale western cutworm. Both are the caterpillar stage of moths, migrating army cutworm moths are commonly referred to as miller moths. Both caterpillars primarily feed at night (or during low light cloudy days), and shelter just under the soil surface during the day.

Thin patchy areas in the field after stand emergence may be the first sign of damage. Army cutworms are also called climbing cutworms, look for chewing damage to the leaves (and entire seedlings chewed to the stem). Pale western cutworms are referred to as “true cutworms”, look for plants lying in the rows that have been cut at soil level. 

Identify the damaging insect. In areas of stand thinning, scratch the soil surface near damaged plants or by the next plant in a row where seedlings are missing, to find the caterpillars. Wireworms can also cause stand thinning – symptoms include wilting flag leaves and wireworm larvae feeding on the roots during May.

Do not treat for cutworms immediately prior to predicted cold weather as the insects will not be active.

Thresholds and treatment options can be found online:

https://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Small_Grains_Army_Cutworm

https://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Pale_Western_Cutworm

MSU MontGuide:

https://agresearch.montana.edu/wtarc/producerinfo/entomology-insect-ecology/Cutworms/MontGuide.pdf


Alert Period: 05/09/2022 - 05/31/2022
Submitted By: Kevin Wanner
Tips for Scouting Cutworms, May 9 2022 (Cropland Insects)
Description:

Two common species of cutworm damage crops in Montana, the army cutworm and the pale western cutworm. Both are the caterpillar stage of moths, migrating army cutworm moths are commonly referred to as miller moths. Both caterpillars primarily feed at night (or during low light cloudy days), and shelter just under the soil surface during the day.

Thin patchy areas in the field after stand emergence may be the first sign of damage. Army cutworms are also called climbing cutworms, look for chewing damage to the leaves (and entire seedlings chewed to the stem). Pale western cutworms are referred to as “true cutworms”, look for plants lying in the rows that have been cut at soil level. 

Identify the damaging insect. In areas of stand thinning, scratch the soil surface near damaged plants or by the next plant in a row where seedlings are missing, to find the caterpillars. Wireworms can also cause stand thinning – symptoms include wilting flag leaves and wireworm larvae feeding on the roots during May.

Do not treat for cutworms immediately prior to predicted cold weather as the insects will not be active.

Thresholds and treatment options can be found online:

https://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Small_Grains_Army_Cutworm

https://wiki.bugwood.org/HPIPM:Pale_Western_Cutworm

MSU MontGuide:

https://agresearch.montana.edu/wtarc/producerinfo/entomology-insect-ecology/Cutworms/MontGuide.pdf


Alert Period: 05/09/2022 - 05/31/2022
Submitted By: Kevin Wanner
Prime conditions for Pythium seed and seedling rot - Use seed treatments for crops not yet planted! (Cropland Diseases)
Description:

Quick Summary for Busy People

  • We observe prime conditions for Pythium seed and seedling rot: high soil moisture and cool soil temperatures.
  • Use fungicide seed treatments with mixed modes of action including Metalaxyl, Mefenoxam, or Ethaboxam for spring crops not yet planted.
  • Delay planting of highly susceptible crops, especially Kabuli-type chickpeas, until soils have warmed up to above 50 F. Use disease-free seed with maximum vigor.

Spring has sprung and planting is in full swing. The snowstorms and rain events in the past days and weeks brought some much-needed moisture to the state. But the newly received soil moisture in combination with still cool soil temperatures create prime conditions for seed and seedling rot caused by Pythium. Pulse crops are at high risk.

What is Pythium rot?

Favorable Conditions: Pythium is a soilborne water mold (Oomycete) that causes seed rot and pre- and post-emergence damping-off on a wide range of host plants. Pulse crops are at high risk. The pathogen is favored by high soil moisture and low to moderate soil temperatures (50 to 75 F). The risk of seedling damping-off is especially high when soils are saturated for one or more days after planting and before emergence. Low-lying areas in the field, where water accumulates, are likely disease hot spots. High residue cover, that keeps soil temperatures cool, also favors the disease.

Symptoms: Poor stand establishment and yellow seedlings are initial indicators of seedling damping-off. These symptoms often occur in circular patches in the field and may be more noticeable in low-lying areas. The root system of affected seedlings is poorly developed with a lack of fine root hairs. Roots often show brown discoloration and have a gelatinous texture. The root cortex (outer layer of the root) can easily be stripped away, exposing the root core (see pictures).

Susceptible crops: Pythium has a wide host range, including small grain crops, alfalfa, and many weed species. Pulse crops are very sensitive to seed, seedling, and root rot diseases caused by this pathogen. Pythium is the most frequently reported cause of seed and seedling rot in peas. Kabuli-type chickpeas are much more susceptible than the Desi-type. Low-tannin cultivars of lentil with light-colored seeds are more susceptible than dark-colored seed cultivars.

How can I manage Pythium root rot?

Fungicide seed treatments are strongly recommended for pulse crops. Choose a seed treatment product with mixed modes of action to achieve broad-spectrum protection against a variety of soilborne seed and seedling pathogens. Fungicides active ingredients with efficacy against Pythium (Oomycete, not a true fungus) include Metalaxyl, Mefenoxam, and Ethaboxam. At least one of these active ingredients should be included in your fungicide treatment to provide protection against Pythium. VibranceMaxx Pulses is one suitable product with efficacy against Pythium and other seed- and soilborne diseases. I have updated the Fungicide Seed Treatment Table for Pulse Crops for the 2022 growing season which provides an overview of suitable seed treatment options. You may also refer to the North Dakota Field Crop Plant Disease Management Guide for seed treatment options in pulses and other crops.

Delay seeding dates of highly susceptible crops and cultivars, especially if fungicide seed treatments are not a management option for you. This concerns especially Kabuli-type chickpeas which are highly susceptible to Pythium seed and seedling rot. Delay seeding until soil temperatures have increase above 50 F.

Plant disease-free seed with maximum vigor to ensure rapid germination and emergence. This will reduce the window of susceptibility for infection, because older seedlings are less susceptible to Pythium (lignification of the root system provides a physical barrier to infection).

 

Picture Captions

Figure 1. Pea seedlings affected by Pythium spp. with dark-brown lesions of the upper root and stem and secondary root rot on lateral root buds.

Figure 2. Circular patches of poor emergence and stand establishment caused by seed and seedling rot.

Figure 3. Roots infected with Pythium often have a gelatinous texture and the root cortex (outer layer of the root) easily strips off exposing the root steele (root core).

 

Please don’t hesitate to email (uta.mckelvy@montana.edu) or call (406-994-557) if you have any questions. I’m here to help.

Best,

Uta McKelvy, Extension Field Crop Pathologist


Alert Period: 05/04/2022 - 05/31/2023
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy
Prime conditions for Pythium seed and seedling rot - Use seed treatments for crops not yet planted! (Cropland Diseases)
Description:

Quick Summary for Busy People

  • We observe prime conditions for Pythium seed and seedling rot: high soil moisture and cool soil temperatures.
  • Use fungicide seed treatments with mixed modes of action including Metalaxyl, Mefenoxam, or Ethaboxam for spring crops not yet planted.
  • Delay planting of highly susceptible crops, especially Kabuli-type chickpeas, until soils have warmed up to above 50 F. Use disease-free seed with maximum vigor.

Spring has sprung and planting is in full swing. The snowstorms and rain events in the past days and weeks brought some much-needed moisture to the state. But the newly received soil moisture in combination with still cool soil temperatures create prime conditions for seed and seedling rot caused by Pythium. Pulse crops are at high risk.

What is Pythium rot?

Favorable Conditions: Pythium is a soilborne water mold (Oomycete) that causes seed rot and pre- and post-emergence damping-off on a wide range of host plants. Pulse crops are at high risk. The pathogen is favored by high soil moisture and low to moderate soil temperatures (50 to 75 F). The risk of seedling damping-off is especially high when soils are saturated for one or more days after planting and before emergence. Low-lying areas in the field, where water accumulates, are likely disease hot spots. High residue cover, that keeps soil temperatures cool, also favors the disease.

Symptoms: Poor stand establishment and yellow seedlings are initial indicators of seedling damping-off. These symptoms often occur in circular patches in the field and may be more noticeable in low-lying areas. The root system of affected seedlings is poorly developed with a lack of fine root hairs. Roots often show brown discoloration and have a gelatinous texture. The root cortex (outer layer of the root) can easily be stripped away, exposing the root core (see pictures).

Susceptible crops: Pythium has a wide host range, including small grain crops, alfalfa, and many weed species. Pulse crops are very sensitive to seed, seedling, and root rot diseases caused by this pathogen. Pythium is the most frequently reported cause of seed and seedling rot in peas. Kabuli-type chickpeas are much more susceptible than the Desi-type. Low-tannin cultivars of lentil with light-colored seeds are more susceptible than dark-colored seed cultivars.

How can I manage Pythium root rot?

Fungicide seed treatments are strongly recommended for pulse crops. Choose a seed treatment product with mixed modes of action to achieve broad-spectrum protection against a variety of soilborne seed and seedling pathogens. Fungicides active ingredients with efficacy against Pythium (Oomycete, not a true fungus) include Metalaxyl, Mefenoxam, and Ethaboxam. At least one of these active ingredients should be included in your fungicide treatment to provide protection against Pythium. VibranceMaxx Pulses is one suitable product with efficacy against Pythium and other seed- and soilborne diseases. I have updated the Fungicide Seed Treatment Table for Pulse Crops for the 2022 growing season which provides an overview of suitable seed treatment options. You may also refer to the North Dakota Field Crop Plant Disease Management Guide for seed treatment options in pulses and other crops.

Delay seeding dates of highly susceptible crops and cultivars, especially if fungicide seed treatments are not a management option for you. This concerns especially Kabuli-type chickpeas which are highly susceptible to Pythium seed and seedling rot. Delay seeding until soil temperatures have increase above 50 F.

Plant disease-free seed with maximum vigor to ensure rapid germination and emergence. This will reduce the window of susceptibility for infection, because older seedlings are less susceptible to Pythium (lignification of the root system provides a physical barrier to infection).

 

Picture Captions

Figure 1. Pea seedlings affected by Pythium spp. with dark-brown lesions of the upper root and stem and secondary root rot on lateral root buds.

Figure 2. Circular patches of poor emergence and stand establishment caused by seed and seedling rot.

Figure 3. Roots infected with Pythium often have a gelatinous texture and the root cortex (outer layer of the root) easily strips off exposing the root steele (root core).

 

Please don’t hesitate to email (uta.mckelvy@montana.edu) or call (406-994-557) if you have any questions. I’m here to help.

Best,

Uta McKelvy, Extension Field Crop Pathologist


Alert Period: 05/04/2022 - 05/31/2023
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy
Preparing for Pesticide Applications in 2022 (Pesticides)
Description:

By planning a pesticide application ahead of time pesticide applicators may minimize future issues including non-target impacts and pesticide exposure while lowering costs and maximizing the effectiveness of their pesticide application. Pesticide application planning includes researching the best pesticide to meet your pest needs while purchasing personal protective equipment and recommended adjuvants well ahead of time. In addition, an applicator should prepare their pesticide equipment, test water quality, and conduct a site assessment to ensure the pesticide works as intended, while minimizing non-target impacts.  See the Ag Alert attachment for more information on this subject.           


Alert Period: 05/04/2022 - 07/30/2022
Submitted By: Cecil Tharp

See Alert Details
Preparing for Pesticide Applications in 2022 (Pesticides)
Description:

By planning a pesticide application ahead of time pesticide applicators may minimize future issues including non-target impacts and pesticide exposure while lowering costs and maximizing the effectiveness of their pesticide application. Pesticide application planning includes researching the best pesticide to meet your pest needs while purchasing personal protective equipment and recommended adjuvants well ahead of time. In addition, an applicator should prepare their pesticide equipment, test water quality, and conduct a site assessment to ensure the pesticide works as intended, while minimizing non-target impacts.  See the Ag Alert attachment for more information on this subject.           


Alert Period: 05/04/2022 - 07/30/2022
Submitted By: Cecil Tharp

See Alert Details
Updated Resources on Foliar Fungicides for Disease Control in Pulse Crops (General)
Description:

Greetings!

We have updated the Foliar Fungicides Table for Pulse Crops for the 2022 growing season. The table is available on the MSU Extension Plant Pathology website.

The table presents information on available fungicide products for the management of widespread fungal diseases of pulse crops (peas, lentils, and chickpeas) for use in the United States. Please be advised that consulting this resource does not substitute careful reading of the product label before an application is made.

To learn more about fungicides and other management strategies for diseases control in pulse crops contact your local extension agent or MSU Extension specialist Uta McKelvy


Alert Period: 04/07/2022 - 06/30/2023
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy
Updated Resources on Foliar Fungicides for Disease Control in Pulse Crops (General)
Description:

Greetings!

We have updated the Foliar Fungicides Table for Pulse Crops for the 2022 growing season. The table is available on the MSU Extension Plant Pathology website.

The table presents information on available fungicide products for the management of widespread fungal diseases of pulse crops (peas, lentils, and chickpeas) for use in the United States. Please be advised that consulting this resource does not substitute careful reading of the product label before an application is made.

To learn more about fungicides and other management strategies for diseases control in pulse crops contact your local extension agent or MSU Extension specialist Uta McKelvy


Alert Period: 04/07/2022 - 06/30/2023
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy
Updated Resource on Fungicide Seed Treatments for Pulse Crops for 2022 (General)
Description:

Happy April!

We have updated the Fungicide Seed Treatment Table for Pulse Crops for the 2022 growing season. The table is available on the MSU Extension Plant Pathology website as of today - no April fools!

The table presents information on available fungicide products for management of widespread seedborne and soilborne diseases of pulse crops (peas, lentils, and chickpeas) for use in the United States. Please be advised that consulting this resource does not substitute careful reading of the product label before an application is made.

To learn more about fungicides or other management strategies for diseases control in pulse crops contact your local extension agent or MSU Extension specialist Uta McKelvy


Alert Period: 04/01/2022 - 06/01/2023
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy
Updated Resource on Fungicide Seed Treatments for Pulse Crops for 2022 (General)
Description:

Happy April!

We have updated the Fungicide Seed Treatment Table for Pulse Crops for the 2022 growing season. The table is available on the MSU Extension Plant Pathology website as of today - no April fools!

The table presents information on available fungicide products for management of widespread seedborne and soilborne diseases of pulse crops (peas, lentils, and chickpeas) for use in the United States. Please be advised that consulting this resource does not substitute careful reading of the product label before an application is made.

To learn more about fungicides or other management strategies for diseases control in pulse crops contact your local extension agent or MSU Extension specialist Uta McKelvy


Alert Period: 04/01/2022 - 06/01/2023
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy
Updated Resource on Fungicide Seed Treatments for Pulse Crops for 2022 (General)
Description:

Happy April!

We have updated the Fungicide Seed Treatment Table for Pulse Crops for the 2022 growing season. The table is available on the MSU Extension Plant Pathology website as of today - no April fools!

The table presents information on available fungicide products for management of widespread seedborne and soilborne diseases of pulse crops (peas, lentils, and chickpeas) for use in the United States. Please be advised that consulting this resource does not substitute careful reading of the product label before an application is made.

To learn more about fungicides or other management strategies for diseases control in pulse crops contact your local extension agent or MSU Extension specialist Uta McKelvy


Alert Period: 04/01/2022 - 05/01/2023
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy
Updated Resource on Fungicide Seed Treatments for Pulse Crops for 2022 (General)
Description:

Happy April!

We have updated the Fungicide Seed Treatment Table for Pulse Crops for the 2022 growing season. The table is available on the MSU Extension Plant Pathology website as of today - no April fools!

The table presents information on available fungicide products for management of widespread seedborne and soilborne diseases of pulse crops (peas, lentils, and chickpeas) for use in the United States. Please be advised that consulting this resource does not substitute careful reading of the product label before an application is made.

To learn more about fungicides or other management strategies for diseases control in pulse crops contact your local extension agent or MSU Extension specialist Uta McKelvy


Alert Period: 04/01/2022 - 05/01/2023
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy
EPA Revokes Use of Chlorpyrifos on all Food / Feed Crops.. (Pesticides)
Description:

In August 2021, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final rule revoking all tolerances for pesticides containing chlorpyrifos. As a result, all tolerances of chlorpyrifos were revoked on February 28th, 2022. Chlorpyrifos is a common organophosphate active ingredient used in many pesticide products for managing insect pests in a wide array of agriculture and non-agriculture areas. Common Montana agriculture crops impacted include alfalfa, corn, soybeans, fruit/nut trees, and wheat. EPA’s decision was based on a response to the ninth circuit court’s order directing EPA to respond to a petition to revoke all tolerances of chlorpyrifos because they were not safe. EPA found that registered uses result in exposures exceeding safe levels of exposure due to the neurotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos and potential association of chlorpyrifos in neurodevelopmental effects in children.  


Alert Period: 03/18/2022 - 08/18/2022
Submitted By: Cecil Tharp

See Alert Details
EPA Revokes Use of Chlorpyrifos on all Food / Feed Crops.. (Pesticides)
Description:

In August 2021, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a final rule revoking all tolerances for pesticides containing chlorpyrifos. As a result, all tolerances of chlorpyrifos were revoked on February 28th, 2022. Chlorpyrifos is a common organophosphate active ingredient used in many pesticide products for managing insect pests in a wide array of agriculture and non-agriculture areas. Common Montana agriculture crops impacted include alfalfa, corn, soybeans, fruit/nut trees, and wheat. EPA’s decision was based on a response to the ninth circuit court’s order directing EPA to respond to a petition to revoke all tolerances of chlorpyrifos because they were not safe. EPA found that registered uses result in exposures exceeding safe levels of exposure due to the neurotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos and potential association of chlorpyrifos in neurodevelopmental effects in children.  


Alert Period: 03/18/2022 - 08/18/2022
Submitted By: Cecil Tharp

See Alert Details
Caution: Safe feeding levels of Nitrate (NO3) and Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N) are not the same.. (General)
Description:

It is getting late in the calving season but we just had one report of a producer confusing nitrate (NO3) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) ppm levels on a forage report, potentially resulting in still born calves.  The NO3-N ppm level needed to elicit health concerns in pregnant livestock is much lower than for NO3.  


Alert Period: 03/02/2022 - 06/30/2022
Submitted By: Cecil Tharp

See Alert Details
Caution: Safe feeding levels of Nitrate (NO3) and Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N) are not the same.. (General)
Description:

It is getting late in the calving season but we just had one report of a producer confusing nitrate (NO3) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) ppm levels on a forage report, potentially resulting in still born calves.  The NO3-N ppm level needed to elicit health concerns in pregnant livestock is much lower than for NO3.  


Alert Period: 03/02/2022 - 06/30/2022
Submitted By: Cecil Tharp

See Alert Details
MSU Extension Needs Assessment Survey_Statewide (General)
Description:

Montana State University (MSU) Extension is gathering feedback from community members to inform and improve programs for Montanans. Please click to link to the online survey and tell us what you think. At the end of the survey, enter for a chance to?win a $50 Visa gift card.  http://ow.ly/ocmF50HuY7o

Your feedback is very important to us!


Alert Period: 02/17/2022 - 07/31/2022
Submitted By: Lauren Kerzicnik
MSU Extension Needs Assessment Survey_Statewide (General)
Description:

Montana State University (MSU) Extension is gathering feedback from community members to inform and improve programs for Montanans. Please click to link to the online survey and tell us what you think. At the end of the survey, enter for a chance to?win a $50 Visa gift card.  http://ow.ly/ocmF50HuY7o

Your feedback is very important to us!


Alert Period: 02/17/2022 - 07/31/2022
Submitted By: Lauren Kerzicnik
Powdery mildew showing up late in a sugar beet field in south central Montana (Cropland Diseases)
Description:

A sugar beet field with the majority of plants showing a dusty appearance on leaves was identified in south central Montana, near Billings, on September 9. Plants exhibited the symptoms both on the upper and underside of leaves at moderate to high levels of severity. Close observation of the symptoms suggested they corresponded to the disease known as powdery mildew, which is caused by the fungus Erysiphe polygoni. Leaf samples were taken to an MSU lab for microscopic observation and confirmation of the pathogen identity. Scattered, whitish mycelial mats were observed on both leaf surfaces containing abundant, cylindrical to elliptical conidia (asexual spores of the fungus) that originated singly from straight, short conidiophores. No chasmothecia (sexual stage of the fungus) were present in the observed leaves. Occurrence of the disease in this field coincides with a period of suitable weather conditions for disease development in this location, namely: warm, dry weather, and large diurnal temperature changes towards end of August-beginning of September. At this stage, since the crop in the scouted field is near harvest, a fungicide treatment is not justified. In situations where the disease is detected early in the season, a fungicide treatment would be recommended upon detection to reduce a potential rapid disease increase. Presence of the disease in this location constitutes a source of inoculum for healthy neighboring fields, though according to communication with the Yellowstone agriculture extension agent and area agronomists, no other fields with similar symptoms have been observed as yet. Disease presence in this location suggests future imminent risk for seasonal incursions of pathogen spores into the area from afar overwintering sites.

For questions and further discussion please contact Dr. Oscar Perez-Hernandez, MSU Extension Row Crop Pathologist (oscar.perezhernandez@montana.edu; 406-994-4091)

 


Alert Period: 09/17/2021 - 09/17/2022
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy

See Alert Details
Powdery mildew showing up late in a sugar beet field in south central Montana (Cropland Diseases)
Description:

A sugar beet field with the majority of plants showing a dusty appearance on leaves was identified in south central Montana, near Billings, on September 9. Plants exhibited the symptoms both on the upper and underside of leaves at moderate to high levels of severity. Close observation of the symptoms suggested they corresponded to the disease known as powdery mildew, which is caused by the fungus Erysiphe polygoni. Leaf samples were taken to an MSU lab for microscopic observation and confirmation of the pathogen identity. Scattered, whitish mycelial mats were observed on both leaf surfaces containing abundant, cylindrical to elliptical conidia (asexual spores of the fungus) that originated singly from straight, short conidiophores. No chasmothecia (sexual stage of the fungus) were present in the observed leaves. Occurrence of the disease in this field coincides with a period of suitable weather conditions for disease development in this location, namely: warm, dry weather, and large diurnal temperature changes towards end of August-beginning of September. At this stage, since the crop in the scouted field is near harvest, a fungicide treatment is not justified. In situations where the disease is detected early in the season, a fungicide treatment would be recommended upon detection to reduce a potential rapid disease increase. Presence of the disease in this location constitutes a source of inoculum for healthy neighboring fields, though according to communication with the Yellowstone agriculture extension agent and area agronomists, no other fields with similar symptoms have been observed as yet. Disease presence in this location suggests future imminent risk for seasonal incursions of pathogen spores into the area from afar overwintering sites.

For questions and further discussion please contact Dr. Oscar Perez-Hernandez, MSU Extension Row Crop Pathologist (oscar.perezhernandez@montana.edu; 406-994-4091)

 


Alert Period: 09/17/2021 - 09/17/2022
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy

See Alert Details
Physiological Leaf Spots on ‘Bobcat’ Winter Wheat (General)
Description:

We are receiving many reports of MSU winter wheat variety ‘Bobcat’ showing foliar leaf spots across the state. The leaf spots are tan to brown in color with yellow halos around them and resemble those associated with tan spot disease or chloride deficiency. Lesion from chloride deficiency tend to have more discrete margins between affected and nonaffected tissue while the margins of fungal lesions tend to be more diffuse. We have observed leaf spot symptoms in Bobcat in previous years, as well, but this year’s drought conditions and temperature extremes have likely exacerbated this phenotype.

At the Schutter Diagnostic Lab we have assessed several ‘Bobcat’ samples for the presence of the tan spot pathogen (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) or other pathogenic causes. At this point, we have no convincing evidence that the observed spotting is caused by a fungal pathogen. The leaf spots are more likely of physiological nature (physiological leaf spot, PLS), which is often caused by chloride deficiency. If disease is ruled out, then chloride deficiency is suspect. In most winter wheat fields this year, it’s likely too late to have a large benefit with a chloride treatment, but if you decide to try, 10-20 lb potash (0 0 60) per acre should be sufficient (5-10 lb Cl/acre) or a similar amount of chloride applied as a liquid (for example calcium chloride or ammonium chloride).

If you observe leaf spot symptoms we encourage you to drop a sample (whole plant) at your local Extension office or submit directly to the Schutter Diagnostic Lab and await diagnosis before applying fungicides (sample submission instructions and forms can be found on the Diagnostic Lab website). If you want to rule out or rule in chloride deficiency, the suggested critical level in plant material (entire plant) is between 0.1 and 0.4%, with large yield increases and leaf spot decreases when chloride was applied at tissue Cl concentrations below 0.1%. Please note that the Schutter Diagnostic Lab does offer tissue analysis or soil testing services.

See https://store.msuextension.org/publications/AgandNaturalResources/NM7.pdf for more information.

Don't hesitate to reach out with any questions or concerns.

 

Best,

Uta McKelvy

Extension Field Crop Pathologist

406-994-5572

uta.mckelvy@montana.edu

 

Clain Jones

Extension Soil Fertility Specialist

406-994-6076

clainj@montana.edu


Alert Period: 06/16/2021 - 06/16/2022
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy

See Alert Details
Physiological Leaf Spots on ‘Bobcat’ Winter Wheat (General)
Description:

We are receiving many reports of MSU winter wheat variety ‘Bobcat’ showing foliar leaf spots across the state. The leaf spots are tan to brown in color with yellow halos around them and resemble those associated with tan spot disease or chloride deficiency. Lesion from chloride deficiency tend to have more discrete margins between affected and nonaffected tissue while the margins of fungal lesions tend to be more diffuse. We have observed leaf spot symptoms in Bobcat in previous years, as well, but this year’s drought conditions and temperature extremes have likely exacerbated this phenotype.

At the Schutter Diagnostic Lab we have assessed several ‘Bobcat’ samples for the presence of the tan spot pathogen (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) or other pathogenic causes. At this point, we have no convincing evidence that the observed spotting is caused by a fungal pathogen. The leaf spots are more likely of physiological nature (physiological leaf spot, PLS), which is often caused by chloride deficiency. If disease is ruled out, then chloride deficiency is suspect. In most winter wheat fields this year, it’s likely too late to have a large benefit with a chloride treatment, but if you decide to try, 10-20 lb potash (0 0 60) per acre should be sufficient (5-10 lb Cl/acre) or a similar amount of chloride applied as a liquid (for example calcium chloride or ammonium chloride).

If you observe leaf spot symptoms we encourage you to drop a sample (whole plant) at your local Extension office or submit directly to the Schutter Diagnostic Lab and await diagnosis before applying fungicides (sample submission instructions and forms can be found on the Diagnostic Lab website). If you want to rule out or rule in chloride deficiency, the suggested critical level in plant material (entire plant) is between 0.1 and 0.4%, with large yield increases and leaf spot decreases when chloride was applied at tissue Cl concentrations below 0.1%. Please note that the Schutter Diagnostic Lab does offer tissue analysis or soil testing services.

See https://store.msuextension.org/publications/AgandNaturalResources/NM7.pdf for more information.

Don't hesitate to reach out with any questions or concerns.

 

Best,

Uta McKelvy

Extension Field Crop Pathologist

406-994-5572

uta.mckelvy@montana.edu

 

Clain Jones

Extension Soil Fertility Specialist

406-994-6076

clainj@montana.edu


Alert Period: 06/16/2021 - 06/16/2022
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy

See Alert Details
Abiotic (Non-Infectious) Symptoms in Wheat Widespread Across Montana (Cropland Diseases)
Description:

Our colleagues at North Dakota State University publish a weekly "Crop & Pest Report" throughout the growing season. This weeks' newsletter contains an informative article by Andrew Friskop and Joe Ikley discussing various abiotic symptoms observed in wheat across the state. You can find the article under "Alert Details."

The entire NDSU "Crop & Pest Report" from June 10, 2021, and older reports can be found following this link: https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/cpr

 

If you are interested in receiving the Crop and Pest Report, you can sign up for free at: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/cpr/subscribe-to-crop-pest-report-pdf-version

Happy Friday!

Uta


Alert Period: 06/11/2021 - 06/11/2022
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy

See Alert Details
Abiotic (Non-Infectious) Symptoms in Wheat Widespread Across Montana (Cropland Diseases)
Description:

Our colleagues at North Dakota State University publish a weekly "Crop & Pest Report" throughout the growing season. This weeks' newsletter contains an informative article by Andrew Friskop and Joe Ikley discussing various abiotic symptoms observed in wheat across the state. You can find the article under "Alert Details."

The entire NDSU "Crop & Pest Report" from June 10, 2021, and older reports can be found following this link: https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/cpr

 

If you are interested in receiving the Crop and Pest Report, you can sign up for free at: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/cpr/subscribe-to-crop-pest-report-pdf-version

Happy Friday!

Uta


Alert Period: 06/11/2021 - 06/11/2022
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy

See Alert Details
Expect frost damage from recent cold snap (Cropland Diseases)
Description:

We are starting to receive samples that show symptoms of frost injury which are associated with the winter comeback last week. Frost damage often occurs in patches in the field, for example in low-lying areas where cold air settles. If and how severely your crop was affected by the cold temperatures depends on the developmental stage of the crop, the duration and low of the temperatures in your location. This alert discusses symptoms of freeze injury on wheat, barley, and pulse crops and includes links for further information.

Call the Schutter Diagnostic Lab at 406-994-5150 or visit our website at diagnostics.montana.edu if you have any questions about how to submit a good sample. Instructions are also on the website.

Best,

Uta McKelvy

406-994-5572

uta.mckelvy@montana.edu


Alert Period: 05/27/2021 - 05/27/2022
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy

See Alert Details
Expect frost damage from recent cold snap (Cropland Diseases)
Description:

We are starting to receive samples that show symptoms of frost injury which are associated with the winter comeback last week. Frost damage often occurs in patches in the field, for example in low-lying areas where cold air settles. If and how severely your crop was affected by the cold temperatures depends on the developmental stage of the crop, the duration and low of the temperatures in your location. This alert discusses symptoms of freeze injury on wheat, barley, and pulse crops and includes links for further information.

Call the Schutter Diagnostic Lab at 406-994-5150 or visit our website at diagnostics.montana.edu if you have any questions about how to submit a good sample. Instructions are also on the website.

Best,

Uta McKelvy

406-994-5572

uta.mckelvy@montana.edu


Alert Period: 05/27/2021 - 05/27/2022
Submitted By: Uta McKelvy

See Alert Details